|देवेन्द्र सिंह जी - लेखक|
पिछली पोस्ट में मैंने कहा था कि जालौन के डिप्टी कमिश्नर ह्वाइट साहब ने भी जालौन के मेमोयर्स लिखे थे और उनको अपनी बन्दोबस्त रिपोर्ट में शामिल किया था। उसको मैं पोस्ट कर रहा हूँ लेकिन दो शब्द इनके बारे में भी सुन लीजिए। जिले के लोगों ने इनके नाम के साथ बड़ा अत्याचार किया है। जिले का आम आदमी इनके नाम का सही उचारण ही नही कर पाता था। इसका नमूना अभी तक जालौन का बैठगंज बाजार है। अपनी कार्यकाल में इन्होने जालौन में एक बाजार का निर्माण करवाया जिसमे चारो तरफ फाटक और मध्य में बाजार था। इन्ही के नाम पर बाजार का नामकरण White Ganj रखा गया मगर जिले के आम लोग इसका सही उचारण न कर पाने के कारण बैठगंज ही करते रहे और अब तो यही नाम रिकार्ड में भी है। इस बाजार को बनवाने में कितने रुपए खर्च हुए थे इसकी सूचना मेरे पास थी मगर अब इस समय मिल नही रही है अत: आप से साझा नही कर पा रहा हूँ। अगर कभी मिल गई तो साझा करूंगा। इस समय तो आप फिलिप्स जे० ह्वाइट की मेमोयर्स का आनन्द लीजिए।
Collective view of the District
The district takes its name from the town of Jalaun, the former seat of the Daccani Pandit Subadars of Mahratta Peshwas, who were entrusted with the government of the country north of Betwa. Urai is the sadr station. The district is situated in that tract west of Jamna kwown as Bundelkhand, (Bundelkhand occupies latitude 23’52-26’26; longitude 77'-53'-81’39’ and covers an area of 18,100 square miles) and has an area of 1533 sqare milles, or 994381 acres; of which 54564 acres, or 85 sqare miles comprising the petty chiefships of Rampura, Gopalppra, and Jagamanpur- are still a terra incognita to us from settlement point of view. To the first Aryan conquerors the District of Jalaun seems to have been known as country of Bhils, a tribe of plunderers, supposed to have been the aborigines of Guzerat and the adjacent quarters of Hindustan, and described Mewar and Udeypur.
But the earliest paramount power of Bundelkhand, of which there is any certain record, were the Chandel Rajputs, derving their origion from Mahoba. They claim descent from Chandrama, or the moon, Hemawati, daughter of Hemraj, a Brahman who was the parohit (or family priest) of Indrajit, the Gaharwar monarch of Banares. The founder of the race was Chandra Varmma, whose dynasty, ac cording to General Cunningham, apart from the legend, rose about A.D 800. Passing over a score and more Kings, we come to Madna Varmma, who reigned from A.D. 1130 to 1163, and whose Kingdom\ streched from Jamuna to Nerbadda, including Jalaun. His son and successor was the ill-fated Parmal Deva or Parmal Deo, whose misfortunes are attributed to the fact that he was the first of the race who did not bear the name of of Varman, in neglect of prophecy of his immortal progenitor, Chandrama, that dominion and power would last while that charmed name was borne. Parmal Deo’s reign is famous for his prolonged and obstinate contest with Prithi Raj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Dehli, who at length overthrew the Chandel in 1183, in a pitched battle fought on the plains near Urai, and wrested from him all the districts of his kingdom lying to the west of Keyn river. So passed Jalaun from Chandel dynasty.
The Chandel, in his turn, was speedily humiliated by the Musalman. Eight years after his triumph over the Chandel, Prithi Raj had to encounter Shahab-ud-din Ghori, the virtual founder of the Muhammadan Empire in India. The armies met in 1191 on the great plain between Thanesar and Karnal. Shahab-ud-din on this occasion was totally routed, and fled across the Indus to Ghazni; but his disgrace so rankled his mind thathe used to say “he neither slumbered in ease nor waked but in sorrow and anxiety.” He renewed his attempt on India 1193. Prithi Raj was not slow to meet the invader, but his former success had demoralized him; his over-confidence begat carelessness, and that led to disastrous defet. Being taken in pursuit, he was put to death in cold blood. Of Prithi Raj’s united kingdoms of Dehli and Ajmer, the former was annexed by the conqueror, and the latter, to wich Jalaun had been attached, was made over to natural son of the Raja, under engagement for a heavy tribute. This new ruler had a very uneasy time of it: the country repudiated his authorty, and his friends the Musalmans had to come to his aid. Shab-ud-din’s representative in India, Kutb-ud-din Aibak, appeared with a strong army and, not however without some preliminary reverses, took the forts of Kalpi and Kalinjer in 1196, again subduing Bundelekhand. Shahab-ud-din reign terminated in1206, and his Indian Kingdom broke at once into separate states, which were scarcely held together even in name by the general supremacy of his successor, Mahmud.
Up to the year 1248 Bundelkhand was more or less in revolt, when Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, one of the “Slave Kings” who was a strong ruler, restored the royal authority on both sides of the Jamna as for as Kalinjer on the east, and this included tract under notice. Weak rulers came after him, the reins of government were relaxed, and the usual conseqences ensued. The Hindu Rajas fell away from their allegiance and assumed independence.
It was in this conjuncture that the Bundelas under Hardeo invaded the country from the south of Betwa towards the close of fourteenth century, and establishing themselves on the right bank of Jamuna, with Mao-Mahoni on the Pahuj in this district for head quarters, gradually extended their rule over all modern Bundelkhand. Yet, now-a-days, in British Bundelkhand there are but few Bundelas, except in Pargana Panwari of Hamirpure. The Bundelas, who give name to the province of Bundelkhand, are a spurious sub-division of the Gaharwar tribe of Rajputs. Various accounts are given of the origin of the name; their own is romantic. Raja Pancham, their ancestor determined to sacrifice his life in honour of goddess Binda (Vindhya) Basin Bhawani, but she compassionately interposed just as he had begun to inflict a wound on himself. The drop of blood (cwan) which fell from the wound on the earth became a Kunwar or Prince, and hence his descendants are called Bundelas.
In 1450 the house of Lodi infusing new blood in Delhi Court, Bundelkhand was, so to speak, again brought under Muhammadan Yoke; but the monarchy was only a congeries of almost independent principalities, Jagirs, & c.; and before the Lodi dynasty was extinguished with Ibrahim, this country on the west of Jamna for the fiftieth time went into rebellion.
Babar “the lion” momentarily subdued it through his son, Humayun, in A.D. 1526. Kalpi occupies a nich in Babar’s memoirs. As an instance of his love for excursions on horseback, it is reported that on is last journey after his health had begun to fail, Babar rode in two days from Kalpi to Agra (160 miles), without any particular motive for despatch. We get a glimpse at the condition of country from the statement of Babar that in his time wild elephants abounded about Kalpi; and Erskine also makes mention of Jilal Khan Lodi, on his way to Jaunpur from Dehli in 1519, turning aside to Kalpi for a time “to enjoy the pleasures of chase.” The presumption therefore is that in those days the country in the vicinity was under forest; but small tract of jungle and ravines would to harbour elephants, whence they would sally into the adjacent cultivated country for food.
About this time, Pratap Hard, tenth in descent from the chief Hardeo greatly extended and consolidated the Bundela sway; and in 1531 founded the picturesque town of Orcha, the Raja whereof is considered the head of Bundela race, and has now his capital at Tehri.
At the accession of Akbar (1556) Bundelkhand generally was tributary; being mostly held by a collection of Rajput families; but the tract under our especial notice was in greater part included in the Mughal Empire. In the territorial divisions established by Akbar in 1596 this tract is mentioned in Sircars (districts) Kalpi and Irich. Of the present Jalaun District, Pargana Kunch and Madhogarh were comprised in the latter sircar; while the rest, being Parganas Ata (or Kalpi) and Urai, and roughly the eastern half of Pargana Jalaun, were contained in the former sircar. All to the south of district, together with a strip of country, of an average width of some six miles, running up wedge-like in north-westerly direction between Kunch on one hand and Urai on the other, taking in the town of Jalaun, and terminating at a point on the Jamna near Kanjausa, in Jagamanpur chiefship, consisted of inddependent.
Pratap’s grandson Madhukar Sah advanced the raj to considerable prosperity by geting the favour of Akbar. Nar Singh Deo, the next Raja, aggrandised the Bundela State still further through the countenance of Emperor Jahangir whom he conciliated while yet heir-apparent by the treacherous murder at Berkel Sarai of Akbar’s great minister, Abulfazl. Nar Singh Deo was a restless warrior and a ruthless freebooter. He raised the Bundela power to its zenith; but from his unserupulousness earned the name of dangi (or robber), a reproach that has stuck to all his countrymen, and also his native soil, in the term Dangeya or theves’land. His successor, Jajhar Singh, revolted against the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1637 A.D., and was driven into exile among the wilds of Gondwana, upon which the country was incorporated with Mughal Empire. But six years afterwards, the determined sturggles of the Bundelas for freedom compelled the emperor to withdraw his forces and admit the insurgents in the western part to the relation of feudatories, on condition of millitary service. During the latter end of the reign of Shah Jahan, Champat Rae, a prince of the Orcha house, asserted his independence, and in sucession to him, his son, Chattarsal, founded a new dynasty, which ruled over extensive territories east of the Dhasan river, including the Jalaun and Sagar District. Chattarsal’s capital was at Panna, and his subjects came to be known as eastern Bundelas, who successfully made head against the forces of Delhi. But in 1732, being hard pressed by Muhammad Khan Bangash, the Afghan Governor, from Delhi, of both Malwa and Allahabad, Chattarsal called in the aid of Baji Rao, Peshwa of Mahrattas, who about this period was bent on his equally bold and astue policy of “striking at the withered trunk” of the Mughal Empire, as he expressed it, knowing that then the branches, sundry of which he coveted, would fall of themselves to him. Baji Rao delivered Chattarsal from his difficulties, receiving for his services “the territory of Jhansi on Jamna” as Elphinstone putes it, together with an ultimate devise of the third part of eastern Bundelkhand, in which the Jalaun District was included. This bequest was made to him as Chattarsal’s adopted son, whereby he inherited equally with Chattarsal’s two legitimate sons, Hardeo Sah and Jagat Raj. The Peshwa made over his portion subject to tribute, to a Deccani Brahman, named Kasi Pandit, who made Jalaun his capital, and whose descendants held it until it recently lapsed to the British Government. The above concludes a general historical sketch of that part of Bundelkhand which comprehends the country commonly known as JALAUN, but it does not specialy touch on origion and formation of the present British district of that name, a subject which it will be of intrest now to treat chronologically and in adequate detail.
The first parmanent foot-hold which the British Government obtained on this (the right ) side of Jamna, west of Betwa, in the tract now known as the Jalaun District, was Pargana Kunch, with the boundaries according to which it was on the 20 September last. The treaty of Bassein with Peshwa provoked Jaswant Rao Holkar into hostilites against the British, which resulted in his complete overthrow. He was pursued by Lord Lake across the Satlaj, and on the 24th December, 1805, he signed a treaty on the banks of of Bias, by which he was stripped of a large portion of his territories, among them Kunch, which, however, as an act of grace, was assigned (with deferred effect for two years) as a life grant to Bima Bai Sahiba, his daughter. But the administration of Kunch was retained in the hands of Government, its revenues being paid to Holkar on behalf of his daughter. The lady died in November, 1858, when Kunch wholly reverted to the British Government; but a provision of Rs. 20,000 a year was assigned to her grandson, Govind Rao, for the support of the old retainers of family. Kunch stood the house of Holkar in good stead for many years. The anarchy and confusion which prevailed in Holkar’s territories previous to the treaty of Mandisor in 1818 (executed after the battle of Mehidipur, which finally dropped the curtain on the past fame and power of dynasty) had ruined the finances of the country. The minister, Tantia Jogh, at length affected their recovery with the aid of loans from the British Government, secured in part by lien on the Kunch Jagir.
The next acquisition was Kalpi, in the year after the conquest of Kunch. Under the series of arrangements made with Peshwa by the treaty of Bassein in 1802, and by its supplement in 1803, the British Government acquired territory in Bundelkhand yielding thirty-six lakhs of rupees a year, but peaceful possession by no means followed. The numerous subordinate chiefs of the Mahratta Empire opposed themselves to the concessions of the Court of Puna, which drew a formal declaration from the British Government of its determination to enforce the provisions of the above treaties. This was immediately followed by offensive operation on the part of the Maharattas, and the Nawab Shamsher Bahadur (A “Nawab” in a Mahratta confederacy naturally raises curiosity, but this man was only half a paka Nawab. Baji Rao, the second of the Brahman dynasty of Peshwas, had by a musalman concubine an illegitimate son, who was brought up in his mother’s religion, and was named Shamsher bahadur, to whom the Peshwa left all his possessions and pretensions in Bundelkhand as acqired from Chattarsal, & c. Of this Shamsher, the Shamsher Bahadur in the text was the grandson, and great-grandson therefore of Baji Rao. Being worsted, he submitted; was pensioned with four lakhs a year, and made to resid at Banda. He died in 1823, and was succeed by his brother, Zulfikar Ali. To him succeeded Ali Bahadur, who, for joining in the rebellion of 1857, was removed to Indore under surveillance, with a reduced pension of Rs. 36000 a year for life. Such was the origion and end of the “Nawab of Banda”) was charged on their side with the execution of a formidable incursion into British districts by the route of Bundelkhand. Nana Govind Rao, the Pandit Jagirdar of Jalaun, who also possessed Kalpi, joined the enemy. His territories were therefore occupied by British troops, and Kalpi being besieged on 4th December, 1803, after a few hours’ resistance yielded, Other of his districts and forts were conquered and occupied, upon which Nana Gobind Rao made complete submission and joined the British army with his troops.
In consideration of this, the ilaqas of Urai and Muhammadabad (now included within Parganas Urai, Ata, and Jalaun) were restored to him during the first year, 1804, and the Pargana of Mahoba (District Hamirpur) in the second year, 1805. A promise was at the same time given that he would afterwards receive an equivalent for “the District of Kalpi”. Accordingly, in the engagement axecuted on 23rd October, 1806, the Nana surrendered and ceded in perpetual sovereignty “the city, fort, and zila of Kalpi, situated in the Subah of Akbarabad, and the several villages situated on the right bank of Jamna between Kalpi and Raipur” aggregating in all seventy-six villages, with an annual jama of Rs. 76,000 corresponding in rough with the of Pargana Kalpi as this report represents them; and in compensation received back fifty of the more inland villages of the said Pargana of Kalpi, seventeen villages of the then Pargana of Kharka, thirty-six of Kotra, and fourteen of Sayadnagar, of an annual aggregate jama amounting to Rs. 1,45,000 in round numbers. These latter sixtyseven villages now constitute the southern part of Pargana Ata and Urai. The effect was that the command of Jamna (with a trifling break) from Madralarpur to Kota, a river length of over sixty miles, fell into the hands of the British. As many of the estates of the compensatory grant interposed between the British possession eastward of the Betwa (i.e, Hamirpur) and Pargana of Kunch, the Nana was bound down to afford assistance and support to the civil officers isolated in the latter country. Kalpi, like Kunch, was placed under the “collector of Bundelkhand.”
This engagement still left Nana Govind Rao independent and uncontrolled ruler of his territories, because the Bassein treaty had the effect of only transferring to the East India Company the sovereign rights of the Peshwa in Jalaun. But by the Puna treaty of 13th June, 1817, article 13, the Peshwa at last transferred to the British Government not only his supremacy over Nana Govind Rao but also the lands in the Nana’s immediat occupation. In pursuance thereof, a second engagement was concluded with Nana Govind Rao at Jalaun on the 1st November,1817, whereby, on certain considerations, the British Government relinquished the right to tribute and military service from the Nana, and acknowledged and consituted “him, his heirs and successors the hereditary rulers of the territory” then in his actual possession. The considerations were that the Nana ceded the whole of the lands of Ilaqa kandah, consisting forty-four villages appertainning to Pargana Mahoba, which were circumscribed by the British possessions in that quarter; also five villages on the banks of Jamna of Pargana Churki (now in Pargana Ata), Lohai, Jugrajpura, Tikari, Jarara, and Manpur, which were intermixed with our lands of Bhadek and Raipur in Kalpi. This completed the command of the whole line of the Jamna. The Nana bound himself to refer all disputes with Rajas or Chiefs to the arbitration and award of our Government, to commit no aggression, and to permit the free passage of troops through his territories.
The next accession was all the rest of Jalaun territories in 1838. Our possession began with the temporary character of trust, but passed into a permanent tenure only two years later, under the following circumstances:- Nana Govind Rao, dying in 1822, was succeed by his son, Bala Rao Govind, who died in 1832 without issue. His widow, Lachhmi Bai, was permitted to adopt her brother, Govind Rao, and thus the principality passed to a child only six years of age, who was placed under the guardianship of Lachhmi Bai. The regent however, who was herself but a child, being at the time not more then thirteen or fourteen years of age, proved quite unequal to the duty of controlling the refractory spirits in the district. A strong party was formed adverse to her authority; the country became disorganized; the government was involved in debt, and portion after portion of the territory was mortgaged, until at length the regent and her minister, finding the credit of the government at an end, applied to the British Political Agent for his guarantee of a further loan, declaring their inability to carry on the government without it, and exhibiting a statement of revenues and expenses which showed an annual deficit of 2/1/2 lakhs of rupees. In these circumstances, the British Government assumed the temporary management of the country for the purpose of reducing expenditure, paying off debt, redeeming mortgaged territory, and restoring ordor. This was in 1838, and Captain Doolan was appointed adminstrator. The organization of local military force being indispensable to supersede the disorderly troops previously retained, the formation of a legion was authorized, consisting of cavalry, infantry, and a gun establishment, with two European officers as commanding officer and adjutant. The infant chief died in 1840 during minorty, and no one surviving of the family of Nana Govind Rao entitled to claim the succession under the engagement by which that chief was constituted hereditary ruler of the didtict, it lapsed to the British Government as paramount lord. The Jhansi State some years later was annexed on similar grounds; and as the question of these annexations is historically important, I make no apology for reproducing in Appendix iv, the clear and concise exposition given in Marshman’s India, in relation to Jhansi, of the reasons why it was inadmissible for such subject chiefs to bequeath the sovereignty of their territories by adoption when heirs in the immediate family of the grantee failed. Liberal pensions to the aggregate amount of Rs. 70,000 were settled on the followers and retainers of the Jalaun family. The territories thus acqired consisted of what now constitute Parganas Urai, Jalaun and Ata in this district (excepting the river-bordering tract of the two last named parganas which has been already specified as Pargana Kalpi) and Mahoba in Hamirpur. This was the real beginning of the Jalaun District for as yet, and until some years later, the Parganas of Kunch and Kalpi remained attached to the Hamirpur District across the Betwa.
Pargana Moth, adjoining this district on the south-west, from contact with which it is divided by Sampthar and Gursarai lands, was also acquired by the British in 1817 from the Peshwa; but as it was at that time held by the Jhansi State in mortgage from Raja Bahadur, it was by the 2nd Article of the treaty with the Subadar Rao Ramchand, dated 17th November of that year, allowed to continue on the same footing until satisfaction of mortgage was effected from the usufruct. This was accomplished in 1838, when Pargana Moth, with the Jalaun State, was placed under the management of Captain Doolan.
In 1841 the detached Chergaon Jagir, fifty-two miles south-west from Urai, comprising twenty-five square miles, and yielding then a revenue of Rs. 25,000, was confiscated and transferred to Jalaun District. The Jagirdar Rao Bakhat Singh, being remonstrated with about the depredations of his followers, became contumacious, and assumed such an attitude of defiance that military operations were commenced against his fort at Chergaon, which he boldly defended. In April in that year the place was invested by force amounting to 2,000 men, while the garrison was conjectured to number 4,000. After the cannonading the fort for two days, it was determined to attack a position outside the wall, where the enemy had thrown up a stockade for the protection of some wells. The British detachment was received by a vigorous discharge of matchlocks, rockets, and fire-pots and the stockade was only carried after an obstinate handto-hand contest attended with considerable loss. A breaching battery on the captured position was nearly completed when the fort was evacuated by the enemy. Rao Bakhat singh took to a marauding life, and, while thus occupied, was killed in the following year, 1842, by a party of British troops. Confiscation of his Jagir, which soon yielded about double the old revenue, was the penalty of his irrational temerity.
Then early in 1843 the Duboh Pargana on the west and the Garotha Pargana on the south, of an aggregate revenue of Rs. 2,27,000, were assigned to the British Government by the Jhansi Chief, under engagement dated 27th December, 1842, for the payment of half the costs of Bundelkhand Legion organized for the protection of the Jhansi and Jalaun Districts.
After the defeat of the mutinous Gwaliar army in the battles of Maharajpur and Paniar, both fought on the 29th December, 1843, Scindia agreed by treaty of 13th January, 1844, to cede territory yielding eighteen lakhs a year for the maintenance of Gwaliar contingent, among which was the Kachwahaghar country, known by us as Pargana Madhogarh and Indurki, contiguous with Jalaun on the west, and thence trending away to Sind river; and Pargana Bhander on the south-west, separated by Pahuj river and by Sampthar territory from Jalaun. The revenue of the frst tract was stated at Rs. 3,01,500 and of second at Rs. 1,80,000, total Rs. 4,81,500. These were added to the Jalaun District.
In 1849 there was yet another addition, near Mahoba, in the small Jaitpur Raj, comprizing 165 square miles, and affording a revenue of about Rs. 60,000. In 1812 the British Government granted the State to Raja Kesri singh, a descendant of Chattarsal, the founder of the independence of Bundelkhand, of whom we have already heard. In 1842 the Raja becoming refractory and committing depredations against the British possessions, was deposed, and the Raj was granted to another descendant of Chattarsal, named Khet Singh. On his death in 1849, without issue, the Raj lapsed and was placed under the Assistant in charge of sub division of Mahoba, in subordinate to the Superintendent of the Jalaun District.
We have now (1849) the Jalaun District consisting not only of the lands circumscribed by its present boundaries, excepting always Kunch and Kalpi tracts above defined, which still appertained to Hamirpur District, but also of the adjacent Kachwagarh country up to the Sind, of Pargana Duboh immediatly below it, of Parganas Garotha, Moth, Bhander and Chergaon, extending all along and deep into the south, and finally of Parganas Mahoba and Jaitpur, lying far away on the south-east, the whole being of an annual revenue approximating fifteen lakhs of rupees.
And such remained the constitution of the Jalaun District until 1853, in March of which year the outlying Parganas of Mahoba and Jaitpur were, in rectification of boundaries, transferred to the Hamirpur District, and the parganas of Kunch and Kalpi herein described taken from it in exchange. The fiscal effect was to increase the revenues of Jalaun by about one and a quarter lakhs of rupees. But the overgrown district was materially reduced in the following year.
Gangadhar Rao, the Jhansi Chief, died heirless in November, 1853, and all his possessions lapsed to the British Government, and in then forming the Jhansi District, Parganas Garotha, Bhander, and Moth with Taluqa Chergaon, were in 1854-56 incorported with it.
With those deductions the Jalaun District continued as above, with a revised revenue approaching eleven lakhs, until May, 1861, when it suffered further dismemberment “As a free gift and willing acknowledment of His Highness Scindia’s services during the mutinies”- such is the language of the treaty of 12th December, 1860, territories yielding a gross revenue of three lakhs per annum were granted to Scindia among other large favours. Towards making up this three lakhs Jalaun had to surrender all its country to the westward of the Pahuj, consisting, first of 125 villages in Parganas Indurki and Madhogarh, bearing a revenue of Rs. 1,08,424, which had been originally assigned to us by the same power in 1844 on account of the Gwaliar Contingent; and, secondly, of 101 villages in Pargana Duboh, paying a revenue of Rs. 68,885, wich never before belonged to Scindia, but to Jhansi State. The total territory thus alienated from Jalaun in 1861 comprised 255 villages, paying an aggregate revenue of Rs. 1,77,309 yearly; and Jalaun was left eith a revenue amounting, in round numbers, to nine lakhs of rupees. It was the last of the dismemberments, and so we reached the point when the district settled down finally to its present boundaries.
(a) From Holkar Pargana Kunch was acquired in 1805, and from the Jalaun Chief Pargana Kalpi in 1806; also the remaing five villages on the Jamuna in 1817; the whole wear under the Hamirpur District until 1853, when they were taken into Jalaun in exchange for Jaitpur and Mahoba.
(b) In 1838 were acquired Pargana Jalaun, Urai, Ata and Mahoba from the Jalaun Chief, and Pargana Moth from the Peshwa. The first four Parganas were only under our management till 1840, but then lapsed permanently, and the fifth Pargana, though it became British property in 1817, did not pass in to our possession till the year in question, 1838. This was the inception of “Jalaun Didtrict” It was aggrandized by Chergaon Jagir confiscated from Rao Bakhat Singh in 1841; by Pargana Duboh and Garotha ceded by Jhansi Chief in 1843; by Pargana Madhogarh, Indurki and Bhander ceded by Scindia in 1844; and by Pargana Jaitpur excheated in 1849.
(c) The district, now at its greatest dimensions, bagan to be broken up in 1853. It gave up Mahoba and Jaitpur to Hamirpur, but received in lien Kunch and Kalpi. In 1854-56 it consolidated the newly formed Jhansi District, by helping it to Parganas Moth, Garotha, Bhander, and Jagir Chergaon, and in 1861, at command of the Supreme government, it surrendered to Scindia all its possessions, a covetable domain, lying to the westward of the river Pahuj. That left the district composed of Parganas Urai, Jalaun, Madhogarh, Kunch, and Ata (or Kalpi) as now.
© देवेन्द्र सिंह (लेखक)
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